• (a)  Introduction.

    (1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect the major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report. In Kindergarten, students engage in activities that build on their natural curiosity and prior knowledge to develop their reading, writing, and oral language skills.

    (2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

    (A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

    (B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

    (C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

    (3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Kindergarten as described in subsection (b) of this section.

    (4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

    (b)  Knowledge and skills.

    (1)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to:

    (A)  recognize that spoken words can be represented by print for communication;

    (B)  identify upper- and lower-case letters;

    (C)  demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and a printed word in text;

    (D)  recognize the difference between a letter and a printed word;

    (E)  recognize that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and demonstrate the awareness of word boundaries (e.g., through kinesthetic or tactile actions such as clapping and jumping);

    (F)  hold a book right side up, turn its pages correctly, and know that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right; and

    (G)  identify different parts of a book (e.g., front and back covers, title page).

    (2)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

    (A)  identify a sentence made up of a group of words;

    (B)  identify syllables in spoken words;

    (C)  orally generate rhymes in response to spoken words (e.g., "What rhymes with hat?");

    (D)  distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

    (E)  recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound (e.g., "baby boy bounces the ball");

    (F)  blend spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words (e.g., onset/c/ and rime/at/ make cat);

    (G)  blend spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words (e.g.,/m/ …/a/ …/n/ says man);

    (H)  isolate the initial sound in one-syllable spoken words; and

    (I)  segment spoken one-syllable words into two to three phonemes (e.g., dog:/d/ …/o/ …/g/).

    (3)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to:

    (A)  identify the common sounds that letters represent;

    (B)  use knowledge of letter-sound relationships to decode regular words in text and independent of content (e.g., VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words);

    (C)  recognize that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted; and

    (D)  identify and read at least 25 high-frequency words from a commonly used list.

    (4)  Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

    (A)  predict what might happen next in text based on the cover, title, and illustrations; and

    (B)  ask and respond to questions about texts read aloud.

    (5)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it correctly when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

    (A)  identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

    (B)  recognize that compound words are made up of shorter words;

    (C)  identify and sort pictures of objects into conceptual categories (e.g., colors, shapes, textures); and

    (D)  use a picture dictionary to find words.

    (6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

    (A)  identify elements of a story including setting, character, and key events;

    (B)  discuss the big idea (theme) of a well-known folktale or fable and connect it to personal experience;

    (C)  recognize sensory details; and

    (D)  recognize recurring phrases and characters in traditional fairy tales, lullabies, and folktales from various cultures.

    (7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to rhythm and rhyme in poetry through identifying a regular beat and similarities in word sounds.

    (8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

    (A)  retell a main event from a story read aloud; and

    (B)  describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions.

    (9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic of an informational text heard.

    (10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text, and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

    (A)  identify the topic and details in expository text heard or read, referring to the words and/or illustrations;

    (B)  retell important facts in a text, heard or read;

    (C)  discuss the ways authors group information in text; and

    (D)  use titles and illustrations to make predictions about text.

    (11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

    (A)  follow pictorial directions (e.g., recipes, science experiments); and

    (B)  identify the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic signs, warning signs).

    (12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

    (A)  identify different forms of media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, radio programs); and

    (B)  identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

    (13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

    (A)  plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing through class discussion;

    (B)  develop drafts by sequencing the action or details in the story;

    (C)  revise drafts by adding details or sentences;

    (D)  edit drafts by leaving spaces between letters and words; and

    (E)  share writing with others.

    (14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

    (A)  dictate or write sentences to tell a story and put the sentences in chronological sequence; and

    (B)  write short poems.

    (15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to dictate or write information for lists, captions, or invitations.

    (16)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

    (A)  understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking (with adult assistance):

    (i)  past and future tenses when speaking;

    (ii)  nouns (singular/plural);

    (iii)  descriptive words;

    (iv)  prepositions and simple prepositional phrases appropriately when speaking or writing (e.g., in, on, under, over); and

    (v)  pronouns (e.g., I, me);

    (B)  speak in complete sentences to communicate; and

    (C)  use complete simple sentences.

    (17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

    (A)  form upper- and lower-case letters legibly using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression);

    (B)  capitalize the first letter in a sentence; and

    (C)  use punctuation at the end of a sentence.

    (18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

    (A)  use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters;

    (B)  use letter-sound correspondences to spell consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words (e.g., "cut"); and

    (C)  write one's own name.

    (19)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

    (A)  ask questions about topics of class-wide interest; and

    (B)  decide what sources or people in the classroom, school, library, or home can answer these questions.

    (20)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

    (A)  gather evidence from provided text sources; and

    (B)  use pictures in conjunction with writing when documenting research.

    (21)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

    (A)  listen attentively by facing speakers and asking questions to clarify information; and

    (B)  follow oral directions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

    (22)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language.

    (23)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns and speaking one at a time.

    Source: The provisions of this §110.11 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.