(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect the major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report. In second grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should write and read (or be read to) on a daily basis.
(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.
(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.
(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.
(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.
(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 2 as described in subsection (b) of this section.
(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how English is written and printed. Students are expected to distinguish features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, ending punctuation, commas, quotation marks).
(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A) decode multisyllabic words in context and independent of context by applying common letter-sound correspondences including:
(i) single letters (consonants and vowels);
(ii) consonant blends (e.g., thr, spl);
(iii) consonant digraphs (e.g., ng, ck, ph); and
(iv) vowel digraphs (e.g., ie, ue, ew) and diphthongs (e.g., oi, ou);
(B) use common syllabication patterns to decode words including:
(i) closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., pic-nic, mon-ster);
(ii) open syllable (CV) (e.g., ti-ger);
(iii) final stable syllable (e.g., sta-tion, tum-ble);
(iv) vowel-consonant-silent "e" words (VCe) (e.g., in-vite, cape);
(v) r-controlled vowels (e.g., per-fect, cor-ner); and
(vi) vowel digraphs and diphthongs (e.g., boy-hood, oat-meal);
(C) decode words by applying knowledge of common spelling patterns (e.g., -ight, -ant);
(D) read words with common prefixes (e.g., un-, dis-) and suffixes (e.g., -ly, -less, -ful);
(E) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Ave.);
(F) identify and read contractions (e.g., haven't, it's);
(G) identify and read at least 300 high-frequency words from a commonly used list; and
(H) monitor accuracy of decoding.
(3) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:
(A) use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing) to make and confirm predictions;
(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and
(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).
(4) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.
(5) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
(A) use prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words (e.g., allow/disallow);
(B) use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;
(C) identify and use common words that are opposite (antonyms) or similar (synonyms) in meaning; and
(D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or a glossary to find words.
(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) identify moral lessons as themes in well-known fables, legends, myths, or stories; and
(B) compare different versions of the same story in traditional and contemporary folktales with respect to their characters, settings, and plot.
(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe how rhyme, rhythm, and repetition interact to create images in poetry.
(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the elements of dialogue and use them in informal plays.
(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) describe similarities and differences in the plots and settings of several works by the same author; and
(B) describe main characters in works of fiction, including their traits, motivations, and feelings.
(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to distinguish between fiction and nonfiction.
(11) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize that some words and phrases have literal and non-literal meanings (e.g., take steps).
(12) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning.
(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.
(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about and understand expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) identify the main idea in a text and distinguish it from the topic;
(B) locate the facts that are clearly stated in a text;
(C) describe the order of events or ideas in a text; and
(D) use text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings) to locate specific information in text.
(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Text. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:
(A) follow written multi-step directions; and
(B) use common graphic features to assist in the interpretation of text (e.g., captions, illustrations).
(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A) recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment);
(B) describe techniques used to create media messages (e.g., sound, graphics); and
(C) identify various written conventions for using digital media (e.g., e-mail, website, video game).
(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);
(B) develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;
(C) revise drafts by adding or deleting words, phrases, or sentences;
(D) edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and
(E) publish and share writing with others.
(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
(A) write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and
(B) write short poems that convey sensory details.
(19) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
(A) write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;
(B) write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and
(C) write brief comments on literary or informational texts.
(20) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive statements about issues that are important to the student for the appropriate audience in the school, home, or local community.
(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
(i) verbs (past, present, and future);
(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);
(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: old, wonderful; articles: a, an, the);
(iv) adverbs (e.g., time: before, next; manner: carefully, beautifully);
(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases;
(vi) pronouns (e.g., he, him); and
(vii) time-order transition words;
(B) use complete sentences with correct subject-verb agreement; and
(C) distinguish among declarative and interrogative sentences.
(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
(A) write legibly leaving appropriate margins for readability;
(B) use capitalization for:
(i) proper nouns;
(ii) months and days of the week; and
(iii) the salutation and closing of a letter; and
(C) recognize and use punctuation marks, including:
(i) ending punctuation in sentences;
(ii) apostrophes and contractions; and
(iii) apostrophes and possessives.
(23) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
(A) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters to construct unknown words;
(B) spell words with common orthographic patterns and rules:
(i) complex consonants (e.g., hard and soft c and g, ck);
(ii) r-controlled vowels;
(iii) long vowels (e.g., VCe-hope); and
(iv) vowel digraphs (e.g., oo-book, fool, ee-feet), diphthongs (e.g., ou-out, ow-cow, oi-coil, oy-toy);
(C) spell high-frequency words from a commonly used list;
(D) spell base words with inflectional endings (e.g., -ing and -ed);
(E) spell simple contractions (e.g., isn't, aren't, can't); and
(F) use resources to find correct spellings.
(24) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:
(A) generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and
(B) decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.
(25) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
(A) gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;
(B) use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index, headings) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and
(C) record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).
(26) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.
(27) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.
(28) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and
(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.
(29) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.
(30) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.
Source: The provisions of this §110.13 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.