(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In third grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.
(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.
(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.
(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.
(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.
(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 3 as described in subsection (b) of this section.
(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to:
(A) decode multisyllabic words in context and independent of context by applying common spelling patterns including:
(i) dropping the final "e" and add endings such as -ing, -ed, or -able (e.g., use, using, used, usable);
(ii) doubling final consonants when adding an ending (e.g., hop to hopping);
(iii) changing the final "y" to "i" (e.g., baby to babies);
(iv) using knowledge of common prefixes and suffixes (e.g., dis-, -ly); and
(v) using knowledge of derivational affixes (e.g., -de, -ful, -able);
(B) use common syllabication patterns to decode words including:
(i) closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., mag-net, splen-did);
(ii) open syllable (CV) (e.g., ve-to);
(iii) final stable syllable (e.g., puz-zle, con-trac-tion);
(iv) r-controlled vowels (e.g., fer-ment, car-pool); and
(v) vowel digraphs and diphthongs (e.g., ei-ther);
(C) decode words applying knowledge of common spelling patterns (e.g., -eigh, -ought);
(D) identify and read contractions (e.g., I'd, won't); and
(E) monitor accuracy in decoding.
(2) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:
(A) use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing clues) to make and confirm predictions;
(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and
(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).
(3) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.
(4) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
(A) identify the meaning of common prefixes (e.g., in-, dis-) and suffixes (e.g., -full, -less), and know how they change the meaning of roots;
(B) use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or distinguish among multiple meaning words and homographs;
(C) identify and use antonyms, synonyms, homographs, and homophones;
(D) identify and apply playful uses of language (e.g., tongue twisters, palindromes, riddles); and
(E) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter and use a dictionary or a glossary to determine the meanings, syllabication, and pronunciation of unknown words.
(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) paraphrase the themes and supporting details of fables, legends, myths, or stories; and
(B) compare and contrast the settings in myths and traditional folktales.
(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the characteristics of various forms of poetry and how they create imagery (e.g., narrative poetry, lyrical poetry, humorous poetry, free verse).
(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the elements of plot and character as presented through dialogue in scripts that are read, viewed, written, or performed.
(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;
(B) describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and
(C) identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.
(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference in point of view between a biography and autobiography.
(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify language that creates a graphic visual experience and appeals to the senses.
(11) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).
(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and locate the author's stated purposes in writing the text.
(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) identify the details or facts that support the main idea;
(B) draw conclusions from the facts presented in text and support those assertions with textual evidence;
(C) identify explicit cause and effect relationships among ideas in texts; and
(D) use text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics) to locate information and make and verify predictions about contents of text.
(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to identify what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.
(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:
(A) follow and explain a set of written multi-step directions; and
(B) locate and use specific information in graphic features of text.
(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A) understand how communication changes when moving from one genre of media to another;
(B) explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., shape, color, sound); and
(C) compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).
(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);
(B) develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;
(C) revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;
(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and
(E) publish written work for a specific audience.
(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
(A) write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and
(B) write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).
(19) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.
(20) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
(A) create brief compositions that:
(i) establish a central idea in a topic sentence;
(ii) include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and
(iii) contain a concluding statement;
(B) write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and
(C) write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text.
(21) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.
(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
(i) verbs (past, present, and future);
(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);
(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: wooden, rectangular; limiting: this, that; articles: a, an, the);
(iv) adverbs (e.g., time: before, next; manner: carefully, beautifully);
(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases;
(vi) possessive pronouns (e.g., his, hers, theirs);
(vii) coordinating conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but); and
(viii) time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion;
(B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and
(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
(23) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
(A) write legibly in cursive script with spacing between words in a sentence;
(B) use capitalization for:
(i) geographical names and places;
(ii) historical periods; and
(iii) official titles of people;
(C) recognize and use punctuation marks including:
(i) apostrophes in contractions and possessives; and
(ii) commas in series and dates; and
(D) use correct mechanics including paragraph indentations.
(24) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
(A) use knowledge of letter sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;
(B) spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules:
(i) consonant doubling when adding an ending;
(ii) dropping final "e" when endings are added (e.g., -ing, -ed);
(iii) changing y to i before adding an ending;
(iv) double consonants in middle of words;
(v) complex consonants (e.g., scr-, -dge, -tch); and
(vi) abstract vowels (e.g., ou as in could, touch, through, bought);
(C) spell high-frequency and compound words from a commonly used list;
(D) spell words with common syllable constructions (e.g., closed, open, final stable syllable);
(E) spell single syllable homophones (e.g., bear/bare; week/weak; road/rode);
(F) spell complex contractions (e.g., should've, won't); and
(G) use print and electronic resources to find and check correct spellings.
(25) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:
(A) generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and
(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.
(26) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
(A) follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information, both oral and written, including:
(i) student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;
(ii) data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and
(iii) visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;
(B) use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics);
(C) take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;
(D) identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and
(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.
(27) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).
(28) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.
(29) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and
(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.
(30) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.
(31) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.
Source: The provisions of this §110.14 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.