(1) The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fourth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.
(2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.
(A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.
(B) For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.
(C) During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.
(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 4 as described in subsection (b) of this section.
(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.
(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;
(B) use the context of the sentence (e.g., in-sentence example or definition) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meaning words;
(C) complete analogies using knowledge of antonyms and synonyms (e.g., boy:girl as male:____ or girl:woman as boy:_____);
(D) identify the meaning of common idioms; and
(E) use a dictionary or glossary to determine the meanings, syllabication, and pronunciation of unknown words.
(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) summarize and explain the lesson or message of a work of fiction as its theme; and
(B) compare and contrast the adventures or exploits of characters (e.g., the trickster) in traditional and classical literature.
(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how the structural elements of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, stanzas, line breaks) relate to form (e.g., lyrical poetry, free verse).
(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural elements particular to dramatic literature.
(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;
(B) describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and
(C) identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.
(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.
(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the author's use of similes and metaphors to produce imagery.
(9) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).
(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between a stated and an implied purpose for an expository text.
(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) summarize the main idea and supporting details in text in ways that maintain meaning;
(B) distinguish fact from opinion in a text and explain how to verify what is a fact;
(C) describe explicit and implicit relationships among ideas in texts organized by cause-and-effect, sequence, or comparison; and
(D) use multiple text features (e.g., guide words, topic and concluding sentences) to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information.
(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to explain how an author uses language to present information to influence what the reader thinks or does.
(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:
(A) determine the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure (e.g., following a recipe); and
(B) explain factual information presented graphically (e.g., charts, diagrams, graphs, illustrations).
(14) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A) explain the positive and negative impacts of advertisement techniques used in various genres of media to impact consumer behavior;
(B) explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., pacing, close-ups, sound effects); and
(C) compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g. language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).
(15) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);
(B) develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;
(C) revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;
(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and
(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for a specific audience.
(16) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
(A) write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and
(B) write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).
(17) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.
(18) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
(A) create brief compositions that:
(i) establish a central idea in a topic sentence;
(ii) include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and
(iii) contain a concluding statement;
(B) write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and
(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.
(19) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.
(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
(i) verbs (irregular verbs);
(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);
(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including purpose: sleeping bag, frying pan) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., fast, faster, fastest);
(iv) adverbs (e.g., frequency: usually, sometimes; intensity: almost, a lot);
(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;
(vi) reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves);
(vii) correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor); and
(viii) use time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion;
(B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and
(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
(A) write legibly by selecting cursive script or manuscript printing as appropriate;
(B) use capitalization for:
(i) historical events and documents;
(ii) titles of books, stories, and essays; and
(iii) languages, races, and nationalities; and
(C) recognize and use punctuation marks including:
(i) commas in compound sentences; and
(ii) quotation marks.
(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
(A) spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules:
(i) plural rules (e.g., words ending in f as in leaf, leaves; adding -es);
(ii) irregular plurals (e.g., man/men, foot/feet, child/children);
(iii) double consonants in middle of words;
(iv) other ways to spell sh (e.g., -sion, -tion, -cian); and
(v) silent letters (e.g., knee, wring);
(B) spell base words and roots with affixes (e.g., -ion, -ment, -ly, dis-, pre-);
(C) spell commonly used homophones (e.g., there, they're, their; two, too, to); and
(D) use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings.
(23) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:
(A) generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and
(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.
(24) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
(A) follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information both oral and written, including:
(i) student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;
(ii) data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and
(iii) visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;
(B) use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, italics);
(C) take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;
(D) identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and
(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.
(25) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).
(26) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.
(27) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and
(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.
(28) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, and enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.
(29) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.
Source: The provisions of this §110.15 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.